Simply put, theory refers to the explanation of general principles art or science built on practice. Indeed, based on from practice we deduce certain rules and sometimes we are able to separate these rules from everything we have seen in practice.
So we start distinguish between theory and practice. The theory is usually useful for explaining practice, theory refers to a much higher level of abstraction while practice to an empirical situation.
If we look at relationships between theory and practice, roughly speaking, two possibilities such as: (i) theory and practice can be seen as quite different from and (ii) theory and practice can be seen as complementary for another.
According to the first point of view, it seems necessary distinguish between theory and practice. So we meet Statements like this are a very good idea in theory, but in practice they can does not work. From this point of view, theory and practice are two rather Different things.
According to the second point of view, it turns out that theory and practice are not two different things, but can help to understand together. From our point of view, although it is important to understand difference between theory and practice, but you must see relationship between them. Essentially, theory and practice are a set that could well be considered on its own.
However, all this concerns the general understanding of the term theory, which is often contrast with practice. But in the field of logic and philosophy, the term The theory was interpreted somewhat differently. As a result, the theory returns to a set of interdependent sentences.
The proposal refers to the statement which could be proven to be true or false. Emphasis should be placed here given to the nature of the utterance itself, which carries the quality of being proven true or false. In our daily life we are faced with statements that cannot be proven true or false. Such statements should be kept out of the sentence scheme as well as theory.
The Concept of Paradigm
Kuhn first suggested that development within a discipline, in particular, science is not a gradual process, but actually happens quite suddenly, suddenly. Thus, Kuhn’s books headlined the structure of the scientific revolution.
Kuhn calls these sudden loads “paradigm shifts.” According to Kuhn, science and, more broadly, social science are undergoing changes. process in three distinct phases.
- Pre-scientific phase
- Normal sciences
- Paradigm shift
In the initial phase of the theory of explanation are incomplete and complete with another. At some point, one of the theories imposes itself, bringing into the phase of normal science. At this stage, one theory or set arise from the prevailing theories, which Kuhn calls a paradigm.
When a paradigm shift occurs, a situation arises where the previous theories are redundant. For Kuhn, this is a natural process and it repeats itself over time as new and self-established theories become incomplete as knowledge expands. At the moment the solution lies in change or abandon theories in favor of a different set of dominant theories, or competing theoretical explanations offering more complete and better information an explanation of both science, the social sciences, and the worldview in general.
We can give an example of a paradigm shift by referring to Copernicus, who pointed out that it is the Earth that revolves around the Earth, and not that the sun revolves around the earth, like Ptolemy’s position. Copernicus reinforced his commitment to his views with scientific evidence to support them.
Surprise changes in terms of theories, concepts and points of view have emerged with great speed, and there was a paradigm shift. A new theoretical explanation emerges and asserts itself, opening up a new set of theories and perspectives.
Another example of a paradigm shift occurred when Einstein’s theory “The theory of relativity” replaced Newton’s theory of gravity. It should be emphasized that, according to Kuhn, a paradigm shift involves rather cardinal, if not complete replacement of previously established theories sciences and social sciences.
In short, previous theories are not comparable. The replacement is complete. Use of language, development of new concepts, words and meanings are part of a paradigm shift, as are norms, values and morals.
In other words, a paradigm shift involves a new vision of the world, its general perception, perspective and attitude of the world community and charging at high speed. In an era of globalization that sees
postmodern paradigm shift in which the local context is seen as the object of study and consideration of general or mega theories is not considered wise or practical.
Thus, the concept of a paradigm has two aspects. The first one is the one encompasses the whole and includes its various parts in subsets. It includes the whole procedure of science or social science. This is a global paradigm. To the second level discovers that there are theories and practices that reinforce
the existing society/peace paradigm.
We should make it clear here that while some effort has been made to sociology as a separate, independent and scientific discipline created by several major scientists, but the sociological theories thus created are also has been contested on several grounds. This again emphasizes the scientific nature
nature of sociology, where any theory can be tested and probably rejected if an error is found. Thus, in sociological theories, as in other sciences just as there is no such thing as an eternal and universal truth that remains true.
Sociological theories also not to be confused with anything like religious or metaphysical statements. None of the sociological theories can be compared with philosophical attitudes to follow. Sociological theories emerge from these problems and the problems they face today are of a different nature, and most of them are scientific. And in order to achieve this scientific nature, sociology has come a long way since the work of Auguste Comte, made it a positivist science.
The first challenge of sociology theories arose from the vast amount of data that was generated around the world, especially after World War II. For example, data in the field of demography has led to several new innovations in theoretical level.
Similarly, data on the Human Development Index helped to make cross-country comparisons. Second call for sociological theory emerges from processes of change that formed at different levels of society. In simple words, we could say that the processes of social change continue in society, regardless of whether sociologists study them or not.
Actually in In the modern world, the processes of social change are not only complex nature, but today they form much faster. result very often sociologists are unable to study them all. There are several such phenomena requiring serious sociological analysis, studies such as the effects of AIDS and terrorism.
Much remains to be done in these areas.
The Third Challenge of Sociology theories emerged when society as a whole went through significant periods time. Such important periods include the end of World War II, the end colonial rule in various parts of the world and the emergence various independent nation-states. Sociological theories should
adapt many times when such big changes happened form in the world.
The fourth challenge to sociological theory came to some misconceptions about sociology as a subject, solve the current problems of society. In fact, sociology is quite capable solve social problems, but so far limited until their scientific study. But as for answering some sociologists tried to answer these problems and challenges that they had to face some of them. Thanks to the efforts of sociologists, we given the emergence of certain theoretical formulations centered around concepts such as rationality, postmodernism, globalization and civil society.
At the level of sociological theory, intellectuals and scientists The subject also gave many answers on topics such as democracy, socialism and secularism. Sociologists, to some extent, through their writings
made itself felt in the field of reconstruction of society.