Time & Tense
Time is a continuous flow measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days, or years. On the other hand, Tense is a grammatical concept specific to a particular language. The tense system in English is not similar to that of any other language such as Odia or Sanskrit.
The English language has only two defined tenses of Verb: Present and Past.
With the help of these two tenses, we express three phases of time: past, present, and future.
What is Tense?
A tense is a form of the verb that shows Time.
It is of two types.
(a) Present (b) Past
Why is Future called Time?
Future is called Time because a verb doesn’t have a future Tense form.
Way of Expressing the Present Time
1. Present Simple for Habitual action, laws of Nature, general or scientific truths, present state or present fact, and permanent state or permanent face.
I go to school every day. Tigers live in forests.
The sun rises in the east. Water boils at 1000c.
I feel hungry. Bhubaneswar is the capital of Odisha.
2. Present Progressive for Something happening now, for something happening over a period of time, or for a temporary action.
It is raining (now). My brother is searching for a job.
He usually goes to school on his bicycle, but today he is going there on foot.
Way of Expressing the Past Time
1. Present Perfect for a past action with present relevance.
I have ( already) done my homework.
2. Present Perfect Progressive for something happening that started in the past, continuing at present, and is likely to continue in the future.
I am out of breath because I have been running around the playground.
3. Past Simple for a past action that happened in a moment, or a past action that happened over a period of time.
India became free in 1947.
4. Past Progressive for an action in progress in the past.
I was studying in class – IX last year.
5. Past Perfect for an older action in progress in the past.
When we reached the station, the train had left.
6. Past Perfect Progressive for a past action in progress for some time when another action
They had been driving for two hours when their car broke down.
Way of Expressing the Future Time
We use the following tense form of verbs in order to express the future time.
1. Simple Future – With the help of Modals for a simple future of an unplanned action.
Wait a minute. I will come with you.
2. Be going to + verb for the future fulfillment of present cause or indication, and future action with present intention or decision.
There are dark clouds in the sky. It is going to rain.
We are going to leave for Puri tomorrow morning.
3. Present Progressive for a planned or arranged program of future action.
Ex. – The Chief Minister is meeting the Governor tomorrow morning.
4. Use of be to + base form of the verb to talk about official plans and arrangement.
Ex – The PM is to visit America next month.
The conference is to discuss “Global Warming.”
5. Resent Simple for an official program (where the future is seen as a fact).
Ex. – Tomorrow is Sunday
The match begins at 4.30 pm.
6. Future Continuous / Progressive – It is used to talk about actions that will be in progress at a time in the future.
Ex- I suppose it will be raining when we start.
It is also used to talk about actions in the future that are already planned or expected to happen in the normal course of things.
Ex – The Postman will be coming soon.
7. Future Perfect – It is used to talk about actions that will be completed by a certain future time.
Ex – I shall have written my poem by then.
He will have left before you go to see him.
8. Future Perfect Progressive – It is used for actions that will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. (It is not very common)
Ex – By next April we shall have been living here for five years.
|1||Present Simple||Habitual action, laws of Nature, general or scientific truths, present state or present fact, and permanent state or permanent face.|
|2||Present Progressive||For Something happening now, for something happening over a period of time, or for a temporary action.|
|3||Present Perfect||For a past action with present relevance|
|4||Present Perfect Progressive||For something happening that started in the past, continuing at present and likely to continue in the future.|
|5||Past Simple||For a past action that happened in a moment, or a past action that happened over a period of time.|
|6||Past Progressive||For an action in progress in the past.|
|7||Past Perfect||For an older action in progress in the past.|
|8||Past Perfect Progressive||For a past action in progress for some time when another action took place.|
|Present Simple Ex- I go. He/she goes.||Past Simple Ex- I went. He/she went.||Future Simple Ex- I shall/will go. He/she will go.|
|Present Continuous Ex- I am going. He/she is going.||Past Continuous Ex- I was going. He/she was going.||Future Continuous Ex- I shall/will be going. He/she will be going.|
|Present Perfect Ex- I have gone. He/she has gone.||Past Perfect Ex- I had gone. He/she had gone.||Future Perfect Ex- I shall/will have gone. He/she will have gone.|
|Present Perfect Continuous Ex- I have been going. He/she has been going.||Past Perfect Continuous Ex- I had been going. He/she had been going.||Future Perfect Continuous Ex- I shall/will have been going. He/she will have been going.|